Allergies Rhinitis Symptoms


is characterized by an itchy nose, sneezes, nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea.

AR is caused by an allergic response to outdoor or indoor allergens, such as pollen, mites or pet dander. Some people with AR have symptoms of year-round, whereas for others the symptoms get worse at certain times of the year, usually in spring, summer or autumn.

AR is not a life-threatening disease, but it is classified as a major chronic respiratory disease because of its high prevalence and impact on quality of life.

AR and asthma frequently co-exist and moreover, AR is a significant risk factor for asthma.

Diagnosis of AR is typically performed in the primary care setting, with an examination of the patient’s history of typical nasal and ocular symptoms.

Further clarification of the cause of allergy can be achieved through a skin test in which the patient is injected with small amounts of common allergens to identify the triggers. Testing for AR is undertaken to determine the presence of allergen-specific IgE and also to confirm which allergens are relevant to the symptoms.



Untreated allergic rhinitis can lead to more serious diseases in the upper and lower airways. It is often associated with asthma, nasal polyps, sinusitis and otitis media.



First-line treatment for AR consists of the identification and avoidance of provoking allergens, together with the use of decongestants and second-generation antihistamines, while second-line therapy includes corticosteroids (intranasal/ oral/ injected), LTAs (Leukotriene antagonists) and anticholinergics.

Immunotherapy constitutes the third line treatment for AR but is seldom prescribed due to its cost. All of the above treatment cause side effects.

Allergic Conjunctivitis

Allergic conjunctivitis is inflammation of the conjunctiva (the membrane covering the white part of the eye) due to allergy and is very common, especially during the allergy season. Allergic conjunctivitis affects up to 40% of the general population and is a frequent clinical problem for ophthalmic and allergic practices.

Symptoms usually consist of low-grade ocular and periocular itching (pruritus), tearing (epiphora), burning, stinging, photophobia, and watery discharge. Redness and itching seem to be the most consistent symptoms. Although symptoms persist throughout the allergy season, they are subject to exacerbations and remission, depending on the weather and the patient's activities. Symptoms are generally worse when the weather is warm and dry; cooler temperatures and rain tend to alleviate symptoms.

Mast cell mediated allergic response mechanisms.



Over-the-counter antihistamine pills and eye drops are often used for short-term treatment of eye allergy symptoms. However, prolonged use of some eye drops may actually make your symptoms worse.,br>
Corticosteroid eye drops are effective, but they often have side effects, even when used only for a short time, such as glaucoma (increased ocular pressure), cataracts and infection.

Symptoms Seasonal Allergy



Socioeconomic costs rise with the incidence of allergic diseases.

  • Direct costs include interference with breathing during day or night, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations.
  • Indirect costs include time lost from work, lower productivity, and premature death.
  • The quality of life of patients with allergic diseases is greatly reduced.

Environmental factors increase the impact of chronic allergic disease.

  • Allergic problems will increase further with environmental changes such as air pollution and ambient temperature increases that affect pollen counts and the presence or absence of stinging insects and molds associated with allergic diseases.
  • Exposure to outdoor/indoor pollutants has been associated with new onset of asthma, asthma complications, rhinitis, rhinoconjunctivitis, acute respiratory infections, increase of anti-asthmatic drug use, and hospital admissions for respiratory symptoms.
  • Other factors include exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, early life respiratory viral infections, certain drugs, and stress.


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